2013年4月21日星期日

Why you can walk on two feet? -Analysis from physiology



Bipedal (Bp) locomotion is one of the most characteristic motor behaviors in human beings.Why human can walk on two feet? In the evolutionary,it is one of the 10 mysteries. Even Darwin didn’t solve this problem.

There are some scientists studies why human are suitable for bipedal,while rats quadrupedal(But not in the evolutionnary perspective).And concluded that “we may be able to find its reason in their skeletal system”:

Innate quadrupedal (Qp) four-legged animals also often walk bipedally. The walking posture, however, is significantly different between the two. This suggests that although both have a potential to walk bipedally, however, the human has a body scheme suitable for Bp locomotion, probably its skeletal system. The skeletal system includes the lumbar lordosis, sacral kyphosis, a round pelvis, a large femur neck angle, short feet, and so on. To verify this hypothesis, we compared kinematic and EMG activities between rats and humans during Qp and Bp locomotion on a treadmill belt. The rat is a representative Qp animal, but it is able to acquire Bp walking capability with motor learning. Although the mobile ranges of the hindlimb joint are different during each locomotor pattern between rats and humans, both showed replicable flexion and extension excursion patterns for each joint depending on the locomotor phase. There are many phase-locked EMG bursts between rats and humans during the same walking task and these are observed in the proximal rather than the distal muscles. This suggests that both rats and humans utilize similar neuronal systems for the elaboration of Qp and Bp locomotion. It was interesting that both subjects showed more muscle activities during non-natural locomotor patterns; Qp < Bp for rats and Bp < Qp for humans. This indicates that rat Bp and human Qp walking need more effort and we may be able to find its reason in their skeletal system.







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